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What is Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS)

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a rare disorder of unknown origin that affects many body systems, including as the eyes, ears, skin, and the covering of the brain and spinal cord (the meninges). The most noticeable symptom is a rapid loss of vision. There may also be neurological signs such as severe headache, vertigo, nausea, and drowsiness. Loss of hearing, and loss of hair (alopecia) and skin color may occur along, with whitening (loss of pigmentation) of the hair and eyelashes (poliosis). (source)

Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS) is a rare condition characterized by painful ophthalmoplegia (paralysis and/or weakness of the eye muscles). Onset can occur at any age.[1] Signs and symptoms include a constant pain behind the eye; decreased eye movements; and signs of cranial nerve paralysis such as drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis), double vision (diplopia), large pupil, and facial numbness.[1][2] Although it is considered a benign condition, permanent neurologic deficits can occur and relapses are common. The features of THS are caused by inflammation of the cavernous sinus (an area at the base of the brain) but the underlying cause of the inflammation is unknown. Left untreated, symptoms may resolve spontaneously after an average of about eight weeks. Treatment may include use of glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressive therapies.[1]

This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7777/tolosa-hunt-syndrome

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