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What is Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disorder

MOG Antibody Disease (MOGAD) is a recently coined neuro-inflammatory condition that preferentially causes inflammation in the optic nerve but can also cause inflammation in the spinal cord and brain. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a protein that is located on the surface of myelin sheaths in the central nervous system.1,2 While the function of this glycoprotein is not exactly known, MOG is a target of the immune system in this disease.3 The diagnosis is confirmed when MOG antibodies in the blood are found in patients who have repeated inflammatory attacks of the central nervous system.4

Those with MOG Antibody Disease may previously have been diagnosed with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD), Transverse Myelitis (TM), Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Optic Neuritis (ON), or Multiple Sclerosis (MS) because of the pattern of inflammation it causes including brain, spinal cord and optic nerve damage. Patients with persistently positive antibodies are at risk for recurrent events. Those with MOG Antibody Disease do not test positive for the NMO antibody called aquaporin 4 (AQP-4). MOG Antibody Disease and AQP-4 positive NMOSD are thought to have distinct immunological mechanisms.4 Furthermore, those with MOG Antibody Disease seem to be less likely to have other autoimmune disorders (such as rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis etc.) than those with AQP-4 positive NMOSD.4

This information is provided by the Siegel Rare Neuroimmune Association.

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